Tag Archives: Water Shrew

12th Oct 2019 – Mid-Autumn Birding, Day 3

Day 3 of a four day Autumn Migration tour. It was another cloudy, grey and dull day, but the winds were lighter today and it stayed dry. Much better conditions to be out birding on the coast again.

We started the day at Sheringham Cemetery. As we arrived, we met two other local birders just leaving who told us that one of the Ring Ouzels which had been seen here yesterday had been present earlier but had since flown off. There had been a Yellow-browed Warbler here yesterday too, so we decided to go and have a look for that first, then check the bushes where the Ring Ouzels had been feeding in case any had come back.

As we walked round towards the far corner, a Green Woodpecker flew up from the short grass and landed round the back of a pine tree over by the fence. We could just see its head looking round the side of the trunk from time to time. Then it dropped down into the grass nearby and started feeding again, where we could get a better look at it through the scope.

Green Woodpecker

Green Woodpecker – feeding on the grass in the cemetery

There was no sign initially of the Yellow-browed Warbler in the corner where it had been yesterday but while we were looking for it, we noticed a tit flock coming across the cemetery. We decided to follow that across to the allotments to see if it was with them. There were lots of Long-tailed Tits, Blue Tits, Great Tits, Coal Tits and a couple of Goldcrests, but no sign of the Yellow-browed Warbler.

Having left the bushes in peace for a while, we walked over to see if anything had come back. There were lots of Blackbirds now – we counted eight which flew out and there were still two or three in the hawthorns, plus a couple of Song Thrushes, but still no further sign of any Ring Ouzels.

While we were checking out the bushes, one of the group was looking over behind us and spotted a warbler in the trees in the corner. The Yellow-browed Warbler was back! We hurried over and found it flitting in and out of a large oak. It was also very vocal now, calling regularly, a distinctive sharp ‘tsooeet’. Almost all of the group eventually got a good look at it when it came out on the front of the tree a couple of times, although it was hard to get onto at times in the leaves. We could see its creamy yellow supercilium and double wing bars.

We were a bit later than hoped now, but we headed down to the prom anyway. The tide was quite well out already and there was no sign of any Purple Sandpipers on the sea defences, but there were lots of Turnstones feeding on some food put out on the prom or loafing around on the rocks.

Turnstone

Turnstone – there were lots feeding on the prom

We had thought, with the improvement in weather conditions, that there might be some birds moving today, so we wanted to have a look out to sea. We did find a couple of small groups of Razorbills and a lone Guillemot on the sea. A handful of Gannets flew through west, and a single Red-throated Diver flew east. But there was no sign of anything else moving today, no ducks, waders or small birds coming in.

Heading back west, we stopped again at Walsey Hills. The warden there quickly pointed us to the Jack Snipe which was asleep on an island of mud against the reeds at the back of Snipe’s Marsh. It was well camouflaged amongst the stumps of cut reed, bu we could see its golden yellow mantle and crown stripes. From time to time it would give a quick burst of it’s distinctive bouncing action and once or twice it woke up and flashed its bill, shorter than a Common Snipe.

Jack Snipe

Jack Snipe – mostly asleep on Snipe’s Marsh, but did wake up at one point

After watching the Jack Snipe for a bit, we headed in along the footpath through the trees. There were lots of tits around the feeders and we heard several Chiffchaffs as we made our way through to the willows at the back. There had been a Siberian Chiffchaff in here for the last couple of days, but we couldn’t find it. We saw one rather pale Chiffchaff, but it was rather too green in the upperparts to fully fit the bill and seemed to be calling like a regular Chiffchaff to boot.

We did see another Yellow-browed Warbler which called a couple of times before eventually flicking up higher into one of the trees where we could see it. There was a Blackcap in here too.

Yellow-browed Warbler

Yellow-browed Warbler – eventually flicked up into the top of one of the trees

We went round to Cley for lunch and the weather was nice enough now to make use of the picnic tables outside. A small flock of Ruff came up off the scrapes and flew off inland. A Marsh Harrier circled over the reserve, flushing everything. A Yellowhammer flew over high west calling, presumably a migrant. And a small flock of Pink-footed Geese flew over – our first of the day today.

Pink-footed Geese

Pink-footed Geese – smaller numbers arriving today

There had been a Hooded Merganser found at Titchwell earlier this morning, and we learnt that it was still present this afternoon, so we decided to head over there to try to see it. As we made our way west along the coast road past Holkham, a small line of five Jays flew high over the fields beside the road, more birds on the move.

The car park at Titchwell was already very full, with lots of people interested to see the Hooded Merganser. We managed to find somewhere to park and headed straight round to Patsy’s Reedbed. The Hooded Merganser was asleep at first over by the reeds at the back but then woke up and swam round a couple of times so we could get a good look at it.

Hooded Merganser

Hooded Merganser – a smart drake, on Patsy’s Reedbed

Hooded Merganser is a rare visitor from North America, with only 12 accepted records, although no occurrences before 2000 were accepted. The situation is complicated by the fact that Hooded Merganser is very common in captivity and escapes are frequent. The Titchwell bird showed no signs of having been in captivity – we couldn’t see any rings on its legs and it was fully winged. In fact when shooting started in the distance, from the fields across the main road, all the ducks took off and the Hooded Merganser flew round strongly before eventually dropping back down towards the reedbed pool.

Interestingly, a male Hooded Merganser had been photographed flying past Titchwell back on 18th September. What was thought possibly to be the same bird the turned up in Worcestershire the following day. Was this the same bird back again or had it not gone to Worcestershire after all? Where had it been in the interim?

The Pintail was also on the pool here again, at least until the shooting started. A female Stonechat perched up on the top of the hedge behind us. A male Marsh Harrier circled up over the reedbed and drifted over towards us.

Marsh Harrier

Marsh Harrier – circled out from the reedbed

The Autumn Trail is still open, so we walked round to the far corner of the Freshmarsh. We were hoping to find Water Rail and Bearded Tits and although we heard the former squealing and the latter pinging from the reeds, neither showed themselves for the group.

We got the scope on some Bar-tailed Godwits and then some Black-tailed Godwits and one of the latter helpfully walked into the middle of a group of the former to give us a good side-by-side comparison. There were plenty of Avocets and the regular selection of ducks too.

Walking back round along Meadow Trail, we heard a Marsh Harrier calling and looked up to see a young male displaying high in the sky overhead. Not a common sight at this time of year, and the tumbling was a little bit half-hearted. Out on the main West Bank, the Water Shrew was feeding on the side of the path again.

A small crowd had gathered by the reedbed pool, where the Hooded Merganser was now asleep out in the middle of the water. We continued on towards Island Hide, where a Water Rail was showing well on the edge of the reeds. We had a great view of it in the scope.

Some Bearded Tits had been showing along the edge of the reeds too, but had now apparently disappeared round the corner. We were told that some Bearded Tits had also been showing well earlier in the reeds by the main path just beyond the hide and thankfully they were still there. We had fantastic views of a pair, which kept working their way up into the tops of the reeds before flying a short distance further along, the male Bearded Tit with powder blue/grey head and black moustache.

Bearded Tit

Bearded Tit – showing very well in the reeds right by the main path

Interestingly, the pair of Bearded Tits appeared to be followed by a Cetti’s Warbler. After the Bearded Tits flew a short way further down, then the Cetti’s Warbler would flick up out of the reeds too and land again a little further along. It did this several times – not something we have ever seen before. It is normally hard enough just to see a Cetti’s Warbler!

It was a great way to end the day, watching the Bearded Tits. As we walked back towards the Visitor Centre, a flock of about thirty Siskins buzzed around the trees above the path. A small taster of what we were to see tomorrow!

11th Oct 2019 – Mid-Autumn Birding, Day 2

Day 2 of a four day Autumn Migration tour. A grey and windy day, there were spits of rain at times while we were out but with some careful manoeuvring round the county we were able to avoid the worst of the rain this afternoon. Despite the inauspicious weather, we had a very successful day out.

Our destination for the first part of the day was Titchwell. There weren’t many cars yet when we arrived, so we had a quick walk round the overflow car park first, but it was very quiet, no sign of any hungry migrants stopping off to feed here today. There was nothing on the new squirrel-proof feeders by the Visitor Centre either, so we headed straight out towards the reserve.

Long-tailed Tit

Long-tailed Tit – we found a tit flock in the trees by the main path

We hadn’t gone far along the main path when we ran into a tit flock in the trees. There were lots of Long-tailed Tits flying back and forth across the path, along with a few Blue Tits and Great Tits. We managed to find a Chiffchaff and a Goldcrest in with them too. We heard a Yellow-browed Warbler calling from deeper in the sallows but it did not come out.

As we walked out past the reedbed, a male Marsh Harrier flew over the Thornham grazing marsh and chased a couple of crows out over the saltmarsh. We arrived at the reedbed pool just as a Pintail disappeared into reeds, but everyone managed to get on a Tufted Duck, and a Common Pochard with a couple of Coot at the front, all additions to our trip list.

Marsh Harrier

Marsh Harrier – chasing crows over Thornham Marsh

Out at the Freshmarsh, the water level is currently low, as reserve staff are strimming the islands and margins, coupled with the strong SW wind which tends to push the water away from the bank anyway. Consequently, there were not so many birds on here today and what was here was all gathered right at the back. Several Avocets were also additions to the tour list.

We decided to carry on out towards the beach, but as we walked on we noticed everything spook. We looked up to see a juvenile Peregrine flying over. It didn’t really have a go at anything on the Freshmarsh, but carried on west and disappeared off towards Thornham.

Out at the Volunteer Marsh, there were several Redshanks and Curlews feeding in the muddy channel at the far end.

Redshank

Redshank – one of several on Volunteer Marsh

The Tidal Pools are now tidal again, after storms reopened the channel which allows the water to drain. As the tide was already well out, the water level was down, and there were more waders on here today. We could see several Black-tailed and Bar-tailed Godwits, a Grey Plover, and a couple of little groups of Dunlin at the back.

Black-tailed Godwit

Black-tailed Godwit – feeding on the Tidal Pools

There were more waders out on the beach, down on the mussel beds. We had a nice comparison of Bar-tailed and Black-tailed Godwits in the same scope view and careful scanning revealed a single Knot. The sea looked rather quiet by comparison, although we did find a Great Crested Grebe on the water. A dark juvenile Gannet and a Razorbill both flew past.

Our main target here today was to try to see the Grey Phalarope which had turned up yesterday out at Thornham Point. It was still present this morning, but as we walked west along the beach we got a message to say it had flown off, flushed by a Hobby. It had flown off and come back previously, so we decided to press on anyway. By the time we got out to the Point, it was back on its favoured pool.

A couple of Scandinavian Rock Pipits flushed from the saltmarsh as we positioned ourselves on one side of the pool. The Grey Phalarope was over at the back at first, picking around in the samphire. Then it waded into the water and started swimming around, eventually coming right down to the near edge, in front of us.

Grey Phalarope

Grey Phalarope – on one of the saltmarsh pools at Thornham Point

The Grey Phalarope was a young bird, a first winter, with some new grey feathers on its back but still with retained darker juvenile feathers on the back of its neck and wings. We could even make out the remains of the creamy orange wash on the front of its neck. Grey Phalaropes breed in the high Arctic and spend the rest of the year out at sea, migrating down to the coast of South Africa for the winter. They are very prone to be being blown inshore on autumn storms, when they are scarce visitors here. A great bird to see.

Having spent some time watching the Grey Phalarope feeding, we set off to walk back. We went into Parrinder Hide this time, to see if there was anything over the back of the Freshmarsh. There were several Ruff out on the mud and we could now see there were more Avocets in the deeper water over towards the back, along with a nice selection of the commoner dabbling ducks.

It was already getting on for lunchtime, so we set off back along the main path. We hadn’t gone far when we found a couple of people looking at a small mammal on the edge of the path. It was a Water Shrew, feeding on the remains of snails which had been crushed underfoot on the path. They are normally quite secretive, so it was amazing to see one out in the open like this, seemingly completely unconcerned by all the people passing by.

Water Shrew

Water Shrew – feeding on the main path on the way back

We ate our lunch by the Visitor Centre. There were a few Goldfinches and Chaffinches on the feeders and a large Brown Rat underneath! A couple of Siskins flew over calling.

Afterwards, we walked out along Fen Trail. We found a tit flock again, but it moved too quickly back through the trees to see if there was anything interesting with it. There were more more tits in the trees by the Tank Road, and a Goldcrest which was busy preening deep in the elders.

Out at Patsy’s Reedbed, there were more ducks, including a moulting drake Pintail at the back, to make up for the one which had disappeared into the reeds earlier. There were lots of Black-headed Gulls bathing out in the middle and a Mediterranean Gull dropped in with them briefly. A first winter, its heavier dark bill and black bandit mask gave it away, but it didn’t linger and flew off again west past us.

Mediterranean Gull

Mediterranean Gull – dropped in on Patsy’s Reedbed pool briefly

We had got away with the weather so far today, but now it started to spit with rain. A quick look at the forecast suggested some rain was approaching, so we made our way back to the car park. It looked like it would remain dry further south until later this afternoon, so we decided to head inland. A covey of Grey Partridges ran across the road in front of us. Then as we got out onto the A148, it started to rain.

As we got to the Brecks, we drove out of the rain again, so it was dry when we got to our destination, even if it was grey and rather windy still. We had come to look for the Stone Curlews which gather here in the autumn. They were hard to find at first, but we managed to locate one then two, hiding behind the ridges of soil and clumps of nettles, trying to shelter from the wind. Gradually they became more active, and we counted up to eight Stone Curlews from here. We had nice views of them through the scope.

Stone Curlew

Stone Curlew – we counted 27 still in the fields today

There were lots of gulls in the fields too, mainly Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Scanning through them, we found an adult Yellow-legged Gull first. It was colour-ringed, with a red ring, but it was too far away to read the lettering. We found a Caspian Gull next, an immature in its 2nd winter/2nd calendar year, but it flew off back to the next field, out of view, before everyone could get onto it. Then we picked out a second Yellow-legged Gull, this time also a 2nd winter. There were probably a lot more other gulls there too, but most were out of view from here.

Given we were upwind from them and the Stone Curlews were sheltering from the wind from this direction, we drove round to the other side of the field to try to see if there were more there that we couldn’t see. We were much further away, but scanning with the scope we could now see where the other Stone Curlews were hiding. The light was fading and they were very well camouflaged against the bare stony ground, but we counted at least 28 Stone Curlews from here. Numbers are gradually dropping now, as birds head off south for the winter, but that was still an impressive total.

As we drove back, we quickly ran into heavy rain. We had been very lucky, managing to avoid the worst of the weather today.

22nd July 2018 – Scorching Summer Tour, Day 3

Day 3 of a three day long weekend of Summer Tours today, our last day. We were heading down to the Brecks today. The weather has been getting progressively hotter, and today was the warmest of the days we were out. It was bright and sunny in the morning and, although it did cloud over a little in the afternoon, it was still hot and humid.

The Peregrine was back on the church tower again this morning, so once we had picked everyone up we took a short detour round to see it. It had just finished devouring its breakfast and was digesting, perched high on one of the stones protruding from the tower, dozing in the morning sunshine. We got the scope on it and had a fantastic, full-frame view.

IMG_5794

Peregrine – back on the church tower again this morning

It was such a treat to get so close views of a Peregrine, we eventually had to tear ourselves away to head off on the journey down to the Brecks.

Once we got into the north Brecks, we took a detour off the road to look for Stone Curlews. At the end of the breeding season they start to gather in larger flocks in favoured fields, and we hoped to find some today. We stopped to scan the field where they have been recently, but we couldn’t find any there this morning. Then we heard Stone Curlews calling and realised they were in the field the other side of the road.

There is a thick hedge the other side of the road and it is impossible to see into the field, so we walked up to try to find a gap from where we could view. Some of the Stone Curlews must have been close to the hedge, because they took off and flew round, over our heads and across the road to the field we had been scanning. Two swung round and dropped down in view, but the rest, at least another ten, flew out to the middle of the field. The ground slopes away here and they dropped in out of view.

Turning our attention to the two Stone Curlews which had dropped down where we could see them, we trained the scope on them and had a great look at them. We could see their staring yellow iris and short black-tipped yellow bill, very unlike a curlew. They are not members of the curlew family at all, just named for their curlew-like calls, but actually members of the thick-knee family.

IMG_5822

Stone Curlew – two landed in view in the field

One of the Stone Curlews sat down in the stony field and promptly all but disappeared – they are very well camouflaged! While we were watching them, we heard Tree Sparrows calling and looked across to see two land in a large bush out in the middle of the field. Through the scope, we could see the black spots in the middle of their white cheeks.

Our main destination for the day was to be Lakenheath Fen. Unfortunately, we had to take a big diversion to get there today. We hit a big traffic jam at Weeting, where the traffic had backed up trying to get into this weekend’s Weeting Steam Rally. The tailback was right through the village and almost back to the main road! The organisers really need to do something about their chaotic parking arrangements next year – they clearly could not cope with the number of cars arriving. The diversion did at least yield a Mistle Thrush on some wires by the road as we passed.

We eventually arrived at Lakenheath to find they had their own ‘bioblitz’ event on today. While we were arranging access permits, we had a quick look at the various creatures they had already gathered. Unfortunately they had not kept many of the most interesting moths from the moth traps, but we did have a look at the Poplar Hawkmoth and Garden Tiger moths which had been put onto one of the screens round the back of the visitor centre.

One of the group had wandered back towards the car park, and saw the first Bittern of the day. It was a distinctive female with an injured leg which hangs down in flight, known as ‘Gammyleg’. It had disappeared off upstream along the river towards Brandon Fen, away from the reserve.

We needed to limit the amount of walking for the group today, so we were granted a disabled permit and drove out to the disabled parking area by New Fen viewpoint. We walked up to the viewpoint and looked out over the reedbed. Apart from a few Coot, a Moorhen and a couple of Mallard, there was not much to see here today. It was already hot, and activity levels seemed to have dropped.

Black-tailed Skimmer

Black-tailed Skimmer – basking on the path

The number of dragonflies and damselflies here is starting to tail off now, but walking out along the bank on the south side of New Fen we still saw a good variety. There were lots of Brown Hawkers hawking over the reeds and an Emperor Dragonfly patrolled up and down the path, past us. One or two Black-tailed Skimmers were basking on the path and flew off ahead of us. A couple of rather worn Four-spotted Chasers perched on the reeds, but the Ruddy Darters were looking much smarter. Damselflies included Common Blue, Blue-tailed and Red-eyed Damselfly.

There were a few butterflies too – Red Admiral, Peacock, Comma and Large White. A Brimstone was feeding on some burdock flowers.

Brimstone

Brimstone – feeding on burdock

One or two Common Whitethroats darted out of the vegetation ahead of us and we saw a couple of Reed Warblers which disappeared into the reeds as we approached. The warden and one of his assistants were out in a boat, collecting things for the ‘bioblitz’, and flushed some Grey Herons from the reeds. When they had all taken to the air, sixteen birds were flying round together in a big flock! Three Little Egrets flew past, upstream along the river and a Green Sandpiper disappeared off that way too.

We hadn’t gone too far before we spotted the first Bittern for the rest of the group. It was rather distant, over the far side of New Fen. It flew across over the reeds and dropped down out of sight. A little further on, we turned to see another Bittern coming round the far corner of the wood back behind us, away in the distance. We watched as it headed steadily towards us.

When it got closer, we could see that it had a dangling leg – it was ‘Gammyleg’, the female Bittern one of the group had seen earlier. It flew in right past us and dropped down into the reeds a short distance ahead of us, giving us great flight views as it did so. It is feeding young at the moment, so had obviously been off along the river collecting food.

Bittern

Bittern – the bird known as ‘Gammyleg’ flying in over the reeds

We walked up to where the Bittern had seemed to go down and scanned the reeds, as much as we could see into them, but there was no sign of it. We hadn’t gone much further along here before we looked back to see ‘Gammyleg’ heading off again, back round the far corner of the wood, presumably back to where it had been feeding earlier.

There had been a family of Bitterns seen from Mere Hide in recent weeks, but they have not been seen for a few days. That much was immediately apparent also from the fact that we had no trouble getting into the hide. When the Bitterns were showing, it was impossible to get in, as the place was packed out with photographers taking up occupation of the place from dawn to dusk! We had a quick sit down and scan, before moving on.

The family of Great Crested Grebes is still on one of the pools by the path out to Joist Fen. The four juveniles are now pretty much fully grown – too big to ride on mum or dad’s back now. They still have stripy faces, which distinguishes them from the adults.

Great Crested Grebes

Great Crested Grebes – an adult and one of the now fully grown juveniles

A little further on and a Red Kite appeared from beyond West Wood, flying in low over the river before circling up over the trees. As we got out to Joist Fen, we started to see more Marsh Harriers and there were several juveniles out from the viewpoint, indulging in a bit of flying practice over the reeds.

The Hobbys can be harder to find here at this time of year, but we did manage to locate one from the viewpoint. It was very distant though, circling up right at the back of Joist Fen. There wasn’t much else happening out here today though, so after a short rest we set off back. On the way, a Common Buzzard was circling over the corner of West Wood now.

Common Buzzard

Common Buzzard – circling up over West Wood

We could hear a Kingfisher calling from the poplars, but we couldn’t see it. It was getting quiet hot now, so we made our way back to the car and headed back to the visitor centre for lunch.

After lunch, we walked up to the Washland viewpoint. The water on here is evaporating fast now, which at least has the advantage of making it attractive to waders. There were quite a few Black-tailed Godwits feeding in the shallow water and a large flock of Lapwing on the mud at the edge. In with the latter, were three Curlew and an Oystercatcher too. A single Common Redshank was wading out in the middle. A few Common Terns were hawking around over the remaining water.

The temperature and timing, in the middle of the afternoon, was not really conducive for looking for passerines, but we headed off to Lynford Arboretum to try our luck. We could hear Siskin calling as we got out of the car and saw one flying off from the top of the larches as we walked down through the arboretum. A Nuthatch was calling from somewhere in the distance, but otherwise it was very quiet in the trees.

We walked down to the bridge and someone had put some seed out on one of the pillars. Several Chaffinches were busy feeding here, but nothing else. A Goldfinch came down to drink in the paddock just beyond. We decided to have a look round the lake.

The Little Grebes here have obviously had a successful breeding season – first we found a very advanced juvenile on its own, then an adult feeding a very well-grown juvenile under the over-hanging trees (we could hear its begging calls first), and finally we came across another pair with three very small juveniles.

Little Grebes

Little Grebes – this pair have three still very small juveniles

There was not much sign of any passerine activity down around the lake either, so we headed on round to the weir to see if we could find one of the Grey Wagtails. The water has largely stopped flowing out of the lake now, beyond a trickle, but as we walked in through the trees a Grey Wagtail flew off from the near bank and landed on an upturned wooden box out in the middle. We watched it bobbing its tail, before it flew back and started to feed along the far edge.

Looking back to the weir, we noticed some ripples in the water at the bottom and looked across to see a small mammal. It appeared to be bathing at first but when we looked more closely, we realised it was feeding, diving under the water. It was a Water Shrew – something we see very rarely. It surfaced with something in its mouth and hopped out onto the rocks, disappearing off to the bank. A few seconds later, it reappeared and ran down into the water again.

We stood and watched the Water Shrew feeding for several minutes – it was fascinating to observe one for an extended period, as normally all you see of them is one disappearing off in the water. We could see its long pointed nose, black fur contrasting with paler silver belly and quite a long tail. Eventually the Water Shrew disappeared into the rocks again and we decided to walk back.

When we got back to the bridge, activity seemed to have picked up a bit. The Chaffinches were still feeding on the seed on the pillar, but as we walked up we heard a Marsh Tit calling immediately behind them. It was flicking around in the trees just beyond, low down, hanging on the branches and picking at the underside of the leaves. A Treecreeper called and appeared from around the back on the trunk of the tree right beside us.

Marsh Tit

Marsh Tit – looking for insects on the underside of the leaves

Walking back up through the middle of the arboretum, we came across a large tit flock. A Nuthatch was with them, in a tall birch tree. Unusually, it was feeding by hovering and trying to pick insects off the leaves – not something you see often. There were also Long-tailed Tits, Coal Tits, Great Tits and Blue Tits.

The afternoon was getting on now and it was time to be heading back. On the way, we called in briefly at a clearing in the forest. There have been Tree Pipits breeding here, but there was no sign of them this afternoon. A male Yellowhammer appeared briefly in the top of a young oak tree, with food in its bill. Presumably it still has young in the nest nearby.

We had a quick walk to the edge of the clearing. Several birds flew out of the dense bracken and dropped back in further along. A mixed tit flock were feeding in here, possibly finding more food here in the cool, dark conditions, and with them were a couple of Blackcap and one or two Common Whitethroat.

Unfortunately, we were out of time and we had to head for home now. It had been an exciting three days with a great variety of birds and other wildlife, some of the best Norfolk has to offer in summer.